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RGB color model

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Circuit Description

The applets in this chapter demonstrate how to use Hades for a few simple image processing tasks. They should be fun to watch, and showcase that event-based simulation is not limited to the modelling of digital circuits. The basic idea is to use a class-hierarchy of simulation objects that operate on image data. A corresponding signal class is used to connect the image operators. Instead of logical values, the signals carry references to image objects as their payload. You can instantiate any number of image filters and simply connect them via this new signal type. The standard simulation engine is used to keep track of image changes and notifies the next image filters in the filter chain or filter graph.

At the moment, all classes related to the image processing demonstrations are kept in the hades.models.imaging package. Most of the classes in the package implement a variety of image filters, while the ImageSignal models the signal used to connect the filters.

The ImageSource simulation object is used to load images from a file or URL. Just click on the ImageSource symbol to open a file-dialog and select an image file (supported image formats are GIF, JPEG, PNG). Once the image is loaded, the ImageSource model creates an event on the signal connected to its output port.

Please remember that the applet security mechanism denies file access to applets unless you explicitly allows this via settings in the Java configuration file. Please see the Usage file for details about how to grant applets file access, if you want to open and experiment with your own image files. If the applet detects that file access is denied, it will open a dialog window that allows you to select one of a few demo images, including famous image processing examples like lena and mandrill.

The ImageViewer component is used to show an image in an external window. Simply click on the ImageViewer component to open the corresponding image viewer window. A normal left-click will close the viewer window, while a right-click will change the window size to match the image size. Note that the viewer also displays the alpha, red, green, blue values of the pixel corresponding to the mouse position in its status line.

The filter graph used in this applet demonstrates the RGB (red/green/blue) color model used by most image processing algorithms. The input image is propagated to four image filters, which separate the red, green, and blue components of the input image. The gray filter uses the standard formula to convert the color input image into a grayscale image.

The output of each image filter is propagated via a cascade of image multiplexers to a single image viewer. Note that standard digital simulation models, as demonstrated by the two clock-generators, can be used together with the image filters.

Disclaimer: Naturally, the simple image filters used in this and the following applets do not provide a professional quality image-processing framework. Some of the obvious limitations are:

  • no explicit synchronization is used for the multiple-input filters; an image change on one filter input will trigger the filter. This can lead to a large number of calculations when the filter-graph contains many branches. The obvious fix is to provide filters with separate synchronization input.
  • every image signal keeps a reference to its current image, with the obvious drawback of corresponding memory usage. You may have to restrict filter-graph complexity or specify a large upper memory-limit when working with large images.

    On the other hand, keeping the intermediate images alive means that changing a filter parameter can (and will) instantly retrigger all subsequent filters. This seems more important for the demonstrations than wasting some memory.

  • all filters operate on ARGB and RGB color images (BufferedImage). Gray-scale and black-and-white images should be added for improved processing speed.
  • many common operations are still missing.
  • no documentation except for the source code.
  • no interface to the Java Advanced Imaging operators (yet).

Tip: The image filters from the hades.models.imaging package can also be used standalone in Java applications or a suitable interactive scripting environment. The following example code shows a simple filter pipeline as a Jython script. Simply put the hades.jar and jython.jar archive files into your CLASSPATH, and start the jython interpreter:

setenv CLASSPATH hades.jar:jython.jar
jython imagedemo.py

where imagedemo.py looks like the following:

from hades.models.imaging import *

i = ImageSource().loadImage( 'purple-fringing.jpg' )  # load source image
j = GrayFilter().filter( i )                          # grayscale
k = SobelXFilter().filter( j )                        # x gradient
l = SobelYFilter().filter( j )                        # y gradient
m = AddFilter().filter( k, l )                        # add gradients

c = ImageViewer()                                     # show result image
c.updateImage( i )

For parametrized filters, you can use the following idiom:

from hades.models.imaging import *

# step one: initialize and configure all filters
pf = PurpleDetectionFilter()
pf.setP0( 30 )  # blue-red and blue-green difference threshold

cf = ConstantColorFilter()
cf.setP0( 0 )   # red
cf.setP1( 0 )   # green
cf.setP2( 50 )  # blue

mf = MultFilter()

sf = SubFilter()

# step two: load image and run filter graph
i = ImageSource().loadImage( 'purple-fringing.jpg' )
m = sf.filter( i, mf.filter( cf.filter(i), pf.filter(i) ))

# step three: show result image
e = ImageViewer()
e.updateImage( m )

from javax.image import *
ImageIO.write( m, 'JPG', 'result.jpg' )

Print version | Run this demo in the Hades editor (via Java WebStart)
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Impressum http://tams.informatik.uni-hamburg.de/applets/hades/webdemos/00-intro/02-imageprocessing/colors.html